CHINA
STATISTICS
 
 
 
 
 

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences.  But in the first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines, civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation.  After World War II, the Communists under Mao Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.  After 1978, his successor Deng Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making.  Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the world's second largest GDP.  Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to weaken.

 

GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION
Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam 
AREA
 Total:  9,596,960 sq km
 Land:  9,326,410 sq km
 Water:  270,550 sq km
MARITIME CLAIMS
Contiguous Zone:  24 NM
Continental Shelf:  200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Territorial Sea:  12 NM
CLIMATE
Extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north 
TERRAIN
Mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east 
NATURAL RESOURCES
Coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) 
LAND USE
Arable Land:  10%
Permanent Crops:  0%
Permanent Pastures:  43%
Forest and Woodland: 14%
Other:  33% (1993 est)

 

PEOPLE

POPULATION
 1,273,111,290 (July 2001 est.)
AGE STRUCTURE
0-14 years: 25.01% (male 166,754,893; female 151,598,117) 
15-64 years: 67.88% (male 445,222,858; female
418,959,646)
65 years and over: 7.11% (male 42,547,296; female 48,028,480)
(2001 est.)
POPULATION GROWTH RATE
0.88% (2001 est.) 
BIRTH RATE
15.95 births/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
DEATH RATE
6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
NET MIGRATION RATE
-0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
SEX RATIO
At Birth: 1.09 male(s)/female 
Under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
Total Population: 1.06 male(s)/female
(2001 est.)
LIFE EXPECTANCY (At Birth)
Total Population: 71.62 years
Male: 69.81 years
Female: 73.59 years
(2001 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS
Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% 
RELIGIONS
Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2-3%, Christian 1%
*Officially Atheist
LANGUAGES
 Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic Groups entry)
LITERACY
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total Population: 81.5%
Male: 89.9%
Female: 72.7%
(1995 est.)

 

TRANSPORTATION

RAILWAYS
 Total: 67,524 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
Standard Gauge: 63,924 km 1.435-m gauge (13,362 km electrified; 20,250 km double track)
Narrow Gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m and 1.000-m gauge local industrial lines
*A new total of 68,000 km was estimated for early 1999 to take new construction programs into account.
HIGHWAYS
Total: 1.4 million km
Paved: 271,300 km (with at least 16,000 km of expressways)
Unpaved: 1,128,700 km
(1999)
WATERWAYS
110,000 km (1999) 
PIPELINES
Crude Oil 9,070 km; Petroleum Products 560 km; Natural Gas 9,383 km
(1998)
PORTS & HARBORS
Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu, Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang 
MERCHANT MARINE
Total: 1,745 ships (1,000 GRT or over)  totaling 16,533,521 GRT/24,746,859 DWT
Ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 324, cargo 825, chemical tanker 21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 132, liquefied gas 24, multi-functional large-load carrier 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 45, petroleum tanker 258, refrigerated cargo 22, roll on/roll off 23, short-sea passenger 41, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 1
(2000 est.)
AIRPORTS
489 (2000 est.) 

 

Sources:  Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Factbook – China” http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html (21 Jan. 2002)