GERMANY
STATISTICS
 
 
 
 
 

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation, Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations.  European power struggles immersed the country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945.  With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949; the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR).  The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact.  The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990.  Since then Germany has expended considerable funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards.  In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries formed a common European currency, the Euro.

 

GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark 
AREA
total:  357,021 sq km
land:  349,223 sq km
water:  7,798 sq km
MARITIME CLAIMS
continental shelf:  200-m depth or to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:  200 NM
territorial sea:  12 NM
CLIMATE
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind 
TERRAIN
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south 
NATURAL RESOURCES
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land 
LAND USE
arable land:  33%
permanent crops:  1%
permanent pastures:  15%
forests and woodland:  31%
other:  20% (1993 est.)

 

PEOPLE

POPULATION
83,029,536 (July 2001 est.) 
AGE STRUCTURE
0-14 years:  15.57% (male 6,635,328; female 6,289,994)
15-64 years:  67.82% (male 28,619,237; female 27,691,698)
65 years and over:  16.61% (male 5,336,664: female 8,456,615) (2001 est.)
POPULATION GROWTH RATE
0.27% (2001 est.) 
BIRTH RATE
9.16 births/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
DEATH RATE
10.42 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
NET MIGRATION RATE
4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.) 
SEX RATIO
at birth:  1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years:  1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years:  1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over:  0.63 male(s)/female
total population:  0.96 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
LIFE EXPECTANCY (At Birth)
total population:  77.61 years
male:  74.47 years
female:  80.92 years (2001 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek, Polish, Spanish) 
RELIGIONS
Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%, unaffiliated or other 26.3% 
LANGUAGES
German 
LITERACY
definition:  age 15 and over can read and write
total population:  99% (1977 est.)

 

TRANSPORTATION

RAILWAYS
total:  40,826 km including at least 14,253 km electrified and 14,768 km double- or multiple-tracked (1998) 
HIGHWAYS
total:  656,140 km 
paved:  650,891 km (including 11,400 km of expressways)
unpaved:  5,249 km (all-weather) (1998 est.)
note:  since privatization in 1994, Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG) no longer publishes details of the tracks it owns; in addition to the DBAG system there are 102 privately owned railway companies which own an approximate 3,000 to 4,000 km of the total tracks
WATERWAYS
7,500 km 
note:  major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe: Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea (1998)
PIPELINES
crude oil 2,500 km (1998) 
PORTS & HARBORS
Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart 
MERCHANT MARINE
total:  457 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,414,724 GRT/7,952,776 DWT 
ships by type:  cargo 169, chemical tanker 10, combination ore/oil 1, container 243, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 7, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 7 (2000 est.)
AIRPORTS
613 (2000 est.) 

 

Sources
CIA - World Factbook - Germany