Motivating Factors
 Income is the most important motivating factor for Japanese. It holds far greater importance than any other factor.  Work is also more important than other things. Japanese work until the job is done not at 5 p.m. like in the United States.  The Japanese are also motivated by companywide or groupwide goals. Teamwork, productivity, long-term employment, and dedication to the company also motivate Japanese employees.
Leadership Style
 Leaders in Japan delegate authority despite the very participative decision-making culture of the Japanese people.  Managers have a high level of drive and responsibility that encourages this authoritative behavior.  Most successful businessmen use the art of Zen as a guide instead of western management practices.  Zen promotes the pursuit of common goals or selflessness. Zen also influences "continuous improvement" and "behind the scenes consensus-building". 
Incentive / Reward System(s)
 The Japanese base their reward system on seniority, gender, and marital status (married men receive the highest compensation).  Cash incentives are limited because the Japanese frown on rewarding the individual.  They believe rewarding the individual encourages competition rather than the desired group cooperation that the Japanese value in society and within the corporate world. Promotions are based on age and not merit.


Deresky, Helen. International Management. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2000.
Miyakoda, Tooru. Interview, February 2002.