EXPATRIATION & LABOR RELATIONS
DIRECTION & DEVELOPMENT
In the Japanese culture, conflict is not accepted. The Japanese
develop situation based communication to avoid conflict and crisis. The
Japanese encourage harmony and conflict management in all situations. In
the work environment, the Japanese listen to their supervisors and do as
they are told. They also are encouraged by these supervisors but will not
act unless told to do so. The Japanese also work in groups and teams and
use a leader to direct the group discussion avoiding conflict of any kind.
FOREIGN INVESTMENT CLIMATE
Foreign investment in Japan is regulated by the Foreign Exchange
and Trade Control Law, whose provisions are much more liberalized than
previous laws. Japan has always been opposed to foreign investment,
but recently enacted laws have relaxed that position. Many Japanese companies
are beginning to see the opportunities of foreign investment.
ROLE OF WOMEN
In the past, a working married woman made her husband look like
he was unable to support her (a man who loses face in Japan is looked down
upon). Rapid changes are currently taking place. More than 60% of women
are now working (about half of those are mothers). However, during the
current economic slump, many women lost jobs in order for men to keep their
jobs. Also, women are not allowed to participate in the relationship building
drinking habits of the Japanese working men.
Many companies in Japan select from within the company. If an upper-level
management position is open, then whoever has worked for the company the
longest, and that is also qualified, will move into the position. As far
as selecting from outside the company, the company will usually ask the
current employees to suggest someone. The management team will then meet
the candidates and begin building relationships with them. When the management
team has found someone who is qualified and who they feel will fit in with
the company, they hire him.
Large Japanese Corporations are beginning to recruit from overseas,
because they are beginning to see the results of Globalization and want
to do what is best for the Japanese economy. But most businesses will hire
someone they already know, whether he/she is a relative or a close friend.
The Japanese hire their employees based on the building of relationships
with the candidates. If it is someone they already know, then they know
they can trust that individual.
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
The Japanese find education to be very important. They also portray
this in their training and development of their employees. They will have
all supervisors and some top executives participate in the training. Most
Japanese learn certain trades while they are very young in school. Through
the years this education becomes more difficult and more involved. In large
companies, the Japanese will send their employees to other countries to
learn the best way to do certain things.
21-40% of the labor force in unionized. It is common for a union
to represent all workers in a company. Unions are also beginning to coordinate
their activities, which has led to some lengthy strikes.
Deresky, Helen. International Management. Prentice-Hall, New